By 16srrnagene sequencing in basrah provinceiraq prof. Enterobacter taylorae, described in 1985 by farmer et al. Consequently, details on the patient history and physical examination findings for each infected body compartment are not provided in this article, with the exception of lower respiratory tract infections and bacteremia. Aug 23, 2016 enterobacter is a genus of the family enterobacteriaceae, consisting of common gramnegative, facultative anaerobic, rodshaped, nonsporeforming bacteria. To determine the frequency of occurrence of enterobacter species and their antibiogram from. The genus cronobacter consists of a diverse group of gramnegative bacilli and comprises seven species. Several species have been isolated from urine, sputum and the respiratory tract, pus, and occasionally from blood or spinal fluid. Nitrofurantoin is not indicated for the treatment of pyelonephritis or perinephric abscesses. Cronobacter species isolation in two infants new mexico, 2008. Enterobacter cloacae, the type species of enterobacter, is a prevalent nosocomial pathogen due to highlevel resistance to disinfectants and antimicrobial agents. Neighbor joining tree after analyzing 545 nucleotides of the rpob gene and strains of the. Enterobacter cloacae outbreak and emergence of quinolone. Enterobacter are gramnegative bacteria that are classified as facultative anaerobes, which means that they are able to thrive in both aerobic and anaerobic environments.
However, it may be an opportunistic pathogen and has an increasing importance in hospitalacquired infections. Identification and phylogeny of enterobacter sakazakii relative to enterobacter and. Enterobacter cloacae is a ubiquitous gramnegative, fac. Pdf multidrug resistant enterobacter bugandensis species. Enterobacter strains 090008t and 090028t were recovered from the blood of two different patients at west china hospital, chengdu, pr china in 2017. The majority of cronobacter sakazakii cases are adults but lowbirthweight preterm neonatal and older infants are highest at risk. Enterobacter aerogenes is an opportunistic pathogen. Escherichia, shigella, salmonella, enterobacter, proteus, yersinia etc.
Budviciaceae enterobacteriaceae erwiniaceae hafniaceae morganellaceae pectobacteriaceae thorselliaceae yersiniaceae genera incertae sedis. The microbiologic culture monitoring system of sterile body fluids revealed on an episode of enterobacter cloacae and enterobacter amnigenus in blood culture results on the same day. However, the history of some species now placed in the genus enterobacter can be traced, albeit with some confusion, to the end of the 19th century. Today, 22 species belong to the enterobacter genus. Several strains of these bacteria are pathogenic and cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised usually hospitalized hosts and in those who are on mechanical ventilation.
It was first proposed by rahn in 1936, and now includes over 30 genera and more than 100 species. Enterobacter species can be isolated by plating into macconkey agar, eosin methylene blue agar or blood agar6. Enterobacter species infectious disease and antimicrobial. Enterobacter is a genus of common gramnegative, facultatively anaerobic, rodshaped, nonsporeforming bacteria of the family enterobacteriaceae.
In this study the taxonomic relationship of strains described as e. Most individuals who develop an infection have an existing medical condition that makes it easier for the bacteria to grow and spread. Since 1958, 120 cases of cronobacter infection in infants have been reported, an average of fewer than three cases per year worldwide. The genus enterobacter is a member of the eskape group, which contains the major resistant bacterial pathogens. Enterobacter description, characteristics, species. The test consists of inoculating a pure bacterial suspension into the test wells and reading the color reactions that. Bacteriophages are considered an effective alternative for the treatment of bacterial infections. Enterobacter, genus enterobacter, any of a group of rodshaped bacteria of the family enterobacteriaceae. The phylogenetic relationships of enterobacter sakazakii strains were. Comparative genome analysis of enterobacter cloacae plos. All diagnostic methods are not necessarily available in all countries. In order to prove the hypothesis that these three genetic clusters belong to the same.
In the laboratory, growth of enterobacter isolates is expected to be detectable in 24 hours or less. Cover different classification schemes for grouping bacteria, especially the use of the gram stain 2. The enterobacter cloacae species includes an extremely diverse group of. Hydrolysis of 4hydroxybenzoic acid esters parabens and. The neighborjoining phylogenetic analysis was performed using the. Consequently, many patients who are treated with furadantin are. Pcr assays for the detection and identification of enterobacter spp. Similarly, the report byfleming and associates 15, that klebsiella species are sensitive tocephalothin butaerobacter enterobacter species are not because of the production of a cephalosporinase bythelatter, suggests that it is important for the clinical laboratory to provide. Identification and phylogeny of enterobacter sakazakii relative to.
Members of this species are gramnegative, motile rods conforming to the definition of the family enterobacteriaceae. Louis, missouri, washington university school of medicine, st. Apr 17, 2007 enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause infections such as necrotizing enterocolitis, bacteraemia, meningitis and brain abscesslesions. An outbreak of enterobacter cloacaeinfections with variable susceptibility to fluoroquinolones occurred in the university medical center utrecht in the netherlands in 2002. Klebsiella species and enterobacter species klebsiella is a genus of enterobacteriaceae that has emerged as a significant nosocomial pathogen in neonates. The dna relatedness of nine strains of nih group 42 to the proposed type strain of this species averaged 85% at 70c, whereas the relatedness to other species within the. Table 1 lists the cre bacteria that have been isolated. Enterobacter species is a topic covered in the johns hopkins abx guide to view the entire topic, please sign in or purchase a subscription official website of the johns hopkins antibiotic abx, hiv, diabetes, and psychiatry guides, powered by unbound medicine. These three bacteria can cause a wide variety of infections, including bacteremia, surgical site infections, intravascular catheter infections, and respiratory or urinary tract infections that manifest as pneumonia, cystitis, or pyelonephritis and that may. Common characteristics of family enterobacteriaceae are.
Enterobacteriaceae family contains a large number of genera that are biochemically and genetically related to one another. The name enterobacter hormaechei is proposed for a new species of the family enterobacteriaceae, formerly called enteric group 75, which consists of 23 strains, 22 of which were isolated from humans. Its role as an enteric pathogen has not been demonstrated. Therapeutic characterization and efficacy of bacteriophage cocktails infecting escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and enterobacter species article pdf available in frontiers in. Our investigation showed that a qnra1 gene was present in 78 94% of 83 outbreak isolates and that a qnra1encoding plasmid transferred to other strains of the. Nitrofurantoins lack the broader tissue distribution of other therapeutic agents approved for urinary tract infections. Infections due to antibiotic resistant bacteria are increasing globally and this needs immediate attention. Bacterial classification, structure and function introduction the purpose of this lecture is to introduce you to terminology used in microbiology. It is the type genus of the order enterobacterales.
University 2 department of biology, college of science, university of basrah,iraq. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in eskape pathogens. How to identify enterobacter aerogenes api 20e sciencing. Enterobacter can be found on human skin and plants as well as in soil, water, sewage, intestinal tracts of humans and animals, and some dairy products health canada. We quantified the association between antibiotic exposure and acquisition of antibiotic resistance in pseudomonas aeruginosa and enterobacter species in intensive care unit patients. Enterobacter aerogenes is often spread by crosscontamination from surgery or consistant treatment in hospitals for patients who use catheters.
Enterobacter aerogenes is nosocomial, meaning it is contracted by treatment in a hospital and that healthy people are typically not at risk for infection. Jun 18, 2019 in the laboratory, growth of enterobacter isolates is expected to be detectable in 24 hours or less. Pdf background the antimicrobial resistance amr phenotypic properties, multiple drug resistance. Cronobacter are regarded as opportunistic pathogens, and have been implicated in newborn and infant infections. Manual sequence correction and phylogenetic anal ysis were performed in.
The aim of this study was to determine the relevance between phylogenetically related. Enterobacter aerogenes has recently been moved back to the klebsiella genus, and is now named klebsiella aerogenes. Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of gramnegative bacteria. Enterobacter definition of enterobacter by medical dictionary. Our investigation showed that a qnra1 gene was present in 78 94% of 83 outbreak isolates and that a. Frontiers therapeutic characterization and efficacy of. Based on biochemical properties, enterobacter cloacae represents a large complex of at least variant species, subspecies, and genotypes that progressively identified as the most species causing hospitalacquired infections. Enterobacter spp ranking sixth was responsible for 4. The incidence of infection in the hospital and the community has increased. Molecular epidemiological study of nosocomial enterobacter.
After growth in blood or on agar plates has been confirmed, the bacterial colonies are identified through various, usually automated, methods. Enterobacter is a versatile bacterium able to promptly respond to the antibiotic treatment in the colonized patient. These three bacteria can cause a wide variety of infections, including bacteremia, surgical site infections, intravascular catheter infections, and respiratory or urinary tract infections that manifest as pneumonia, cystitis, or pyelonephritis and that may progress to lung abscess, empyema, bacteremia, and sepsis, as in the following. Frequency of isolation of enterobacter species from a variety of clinical specimens in a teaching hospital in nigeria raphael m mordi and peter g hugbo microbiology department, western delta university, oghara, delta state, nigeria. While every effort has been made to provide the most reliable and uptodate information available, ultimate legal requirements with respect to species are contained in provisions of treaties to which the united states is a party, wildlife statutes, regulations, and any applicable notices that have been published in the federal register. Pdf zusammenfugen pdfdateien online kostenlos zu kombinieren. Enterobacter species are facultative anaerobic, gramstainnegative. Enterobacter sakazakii is a motile, gramnegative, nonsporeforming, rodshaped bacterium, that has been found in infant formulas as a contaminant. Enterobacter spp pathogens poised to flourish at the turn. Acute bacterial prostatitis is an acute infection of the prostate gland that causes pelvic pain and urinary tract symp toms, such as dysuria, urinary frequency, and urinary retention, and may. Organisms capable of producing the enzymes betalactamase and carbapenemase include.
Frequency of isolation of enterobacter species from a variety. Pdf antibiotic exposure and resistance development in. Because of the germs emerging multidrug resistance and prevalence in nosocomial infections, it has been grouped as an eskape pathogen enterococcus, stapylococcus, klebsiella, acinetobacter, pseudomonas, and enterobacter species. Enterobacter species are biochemically similar to klebsiella, but unlike klebsiella, enterobacter is ornithine positive. Results also indicated that enterobacter mori and enterobacter sp. It harbored a highmolecularweight plasmid and was resistant to high concentrations of parabens. Enterobacter species grow rapidly on selective ie, macconkey and nonselective ie, sheep blood agars. Among them, enterobacter cloacae and enterobacter aerogenes are the most frequently isolated species, causing infections in hospitalized and debilitated patients 10, 29. Enterobacter aerogenes causes disease in humans through. In a recent population genetic study, two genetic clusters were found in close phylogenetic proximity to the genetic cluster of e. The genes coding for tem and shv enzymes have quite high mutation rates, resulting in a high level of diversity in enzyme types and thus increasing the scope of antibiotic resistance. The clinical significance of the enterobacter nimipressuralis as human pathogens remains unclear. Lactamresistant enterobacter bacteremia in febrile. It has been isolated from environmental samples and clinical specimens and is likely to cause sepsis and urinary tract infections 5, 23.
Enterobacter aerogenes, a component of the normal flora of the human gastrointestinal tract, is a significant nosocomial pathogen and a common cause of iatrogenic bacteremia hidron et al. First described in 1960, this group member has proven to be more complex as a result of the exponential evolution of phenotypic and genotypic methods. Bacteremia with resistant enterobacter species has been reported in febrile, neutropenic cancer patients receiving. Knowledge of the genus enterobacter and its role in human disease has expanded exponentially in recent years. An outbreak of enterobacter cloacae infections with variable susceptibility to fluoroquinolones occurred in the university medical center utrecht in the netherlands in 2002. Aranicola averyella grimontella guhaiyinggella margalefia phytobacter plesiomonas tiedjeia.
Enterobacter cloacae is the most frequently isolated enterobacter species from humans and animals. Enterobacter aerogenes and other species of enterobacteriaceae are easy to identify using the api20e test kit. Enterobacter huaxiensis and enterobacter chuandaensis are two recently discovered species that exhibit especially antibiotic resistant characteristics. Its classification above the level of family is still a subject of debate, but one classification places it in the order enterobacterales of the class gammaproteobacteria in the phylum proteobacteria. Many of the traditional or familiar bacteria are found in this family e. The species most commonly causing bacteremia was e. Enterobacter aerogenes cuverro antimicrobial copper surfaces.
They are frequently a cause of nosocomial infections. Enterobacter hormaechei, a new species of the family. Hospital mortality for bloodstream infections caused by enterobacter species or citrobacter freundii eli n. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the bacteriophages that infect escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and enterobacter species.
Enterobacter spp update on taxonomy, clinical aspects. Enterobacter cloacae is a gramnegative and a rodshaped bacterium. The identification of enterobacteriaceae can be simplified by taking advantage of the fact that three species comprise 80 to 95% of all isolates in the clinical setting. Strain em was able to grow in liquid media containing similar amounts of parabens as found in the mineral supplement 1,700 and. Our investigation showed that a qnra1 gene was present in 78 94% of 83 outbreak isolates and that a qnra1encoding plasmid transferred to other strains of the same. Enterobacteriaceae empiric drug regimens listed for the various bacterial strains are for adult patients with normal renal function. This bacterium is commonly found is a hospital setting where patients have compromised immune systems. However, some species of enterobacter, such as enterobacter sakazakii, are opportunistic human pathogens. Infections with klebsiella, enterobacter, and serratia are often hospitalacquired and occur mainly in patients with diminished resistance. Cronobacter sakazakii, which before 2007 was named enterobacter sakazakii, is an opportunistic gramnegative, rodshaped, pathogenic bacterium that can live in very dry places.
Al wahab university of baghdadinstitute of biotechnology and genetic engineering for post graduate students biotechnology dep. All enterobacter species are found in water, sewage, soil, and vegetables. These bacteria are gramnegative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods 0. Dna hybridization analyses and biochemical analyses provided further evidence that the novel strains belong to two new species within the genus enterobacter. More than 95% of clinically significant strains fall into 10 genera and less than 25 species. A further, widely distributed enterobacter species is e. Enterobacter species were the secondmostcommon gramnegative organism behind pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cronobacter sakazakii, cronobacter malonaticus, cronobacter muytjensii, cronobacter turicensis, cronobacter dublinensis, cronobacter universalis and cronobacter condimenti. Multidrug resistant enterobacter bugandensis species isolated from the international. Pdf identification and phylogeny of enterobacter sakazakii. Enterobacter cloacae strain em was isolated from a commercial dietary mineral supplement stabilized by a mixture of methylparaben and propylparaben.851 927 1453 192 594 1051 584 714 85 1500 1182 158 1447 602 682 942 60 6 171 1069 280 837 1534 814 1004 1428 831 276 1215 1403 701 1305 897 346 486 1012 85 422 866 1068 1486 992 1053 112 872 440 266 68 1059